1. Don’t move your pencil by bending your wrist or elbow
According to Bob Borson, the most important thing once you start sketching is that you don’t move your pen/pencil by bending your wrist or elbow. Borson mentioned that “Lock your wrist and elbow into a comfortable angle and only move your entire arm when sketching. As you get more skilled, this tip can be relaxed and you can first bend your elbow and ultimately your wrist. In the beginning, by limiting your movement to the entire arm, you’ll end up with straighter lines.”
Position your hand at the end of the pencil to gain more control and precision. This also produces darker markings. On the other hand, positioning your hand further up the pencil makes you less in control, producing lighter markings.
To make an interesting lively sketch, try to use a variety of lines by shifting from thick to thin lines and from light to dark shades. This can be challenging at the beginning, but you can master it by practising using different pencil grades (from 3H to 6B) and with holding the pencil at different angles. keep in mind that you have to use line weight to help convey depth to your sketch. If you want to produce dynamic and unique drawings, go for irregular lines. They can turn dull, flat and smooth sketches into interesting ones
Drawing a balanced artwork is essential, but perfecting a precise symmetrical sketch might look boring. So add some simple changes, but keep the general lines symmetrical to give your drawing an interesting look.
6. Stay clear of smudging
Do not let smudges ruin your designs. Put an extra sheet of paper under your hand when you are shading to avoid un-required smudges. Also, begin shading from left to right, if you are right-handed, and shade from right to left if you are left-handed. On the other hand, if you want to add intentional smudges to smooth out shading, you can use a piece of tissue paper.